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Writing UI pages#

Creating the pages that make up an Agama flow is rather straightforward for a developer. Depending on the sophistication required for the UI/UX, more effort might be demanded, however with Agama, developers focus more on writing HTML markup than dealing with complexities of a UI framework. Here, there is considerably less wrestling in comparison to using big frameworks like JSF.

Template engine#

To generate all output to be sent to the browser, the Apache FreeMarker template engine is used. This is a lightweight, versatile, and easy-to-learn open-source Java library. With FreeMarker any kind of text output can be produced, so Agama flows are not restricted to HTML markup exclusively.

Developers are encouraged to take a peep at the FreeMarker manual before trying to write their first pages. The key concept there is Template + data-model = output which is pretty natural. The sumation in this equation is generally referred to as "rendering a template" in this documentation.

The following resources are useful as introduction as well:

  • The Hello World flow presented in the quick start guide. Pay attention to the RRF instruction there
  • Agama sample flows

As you will see, the task boils down to produce the desired markup plus adding some placeholders for information that is dynamic.

Data model#

In Agama, every template is generally "injected" some data, see RRF. This data in FreeMarker terms is known as "data-model". In practice, this will be an Agama map which can be accessed from the templates using standard FreeMarker notation. This map is attached a couple of additional keys for developer's convenience:

  • webCtx. It gives easy access to often needed bits like current path, locale, etc. This is a Java object you can inspect here. Take a look at the getters; writing ${webCtx.contextPath} in a template will insert the result of calling method getContextPath - normally the string /jans-auth.

  • msgs. It gives access to the localized messages of jans-auth application. Some developers might know this as the "internationalization labels" or "resource bundle" of an application. This is a collection of .properties files where common UI-related messages in different languages can be found. A message (label) is identified by a key, so in a template ${msgs.<KEY>} could be used. As most keys in resource bundles have dot characters, the alternative notation ${webCtx["KEY"]} works better for FreeMarker, for example ${msgs["login.errorMessage"]}.

Output encoding#

The character encoding of the response sent to browser is by default UTF-8. To specify a different encoding the ftl directive can be used, for instance, <#ftl encoding="ISO-8859-5">. Place this at the top of the template.

Reusable templates#

A widespread practice in web page authoring is to compose pages based on reusable pieces. As an example, the need for a common header and footer is ubiquitous in HTML projects. With FreeMarker, composition can be achieved by means of macros. These are the equivalent to functions in programming, they can generate output based on parameters passed and can be called anywhere in a template.

Agama already makes use of macros for this purpose. Take a look at the ftlh files found at /opt/jans/jetty/jans-auth/agama. These templates are used to present errors, like timeouts, flow crashes, etc.


Here, two pages will be built to demonstrate the concept of composition in FreeMarker templates: a homepage and an "about us" page. These will be made up of a header, a sidebar, and their respective main content. Assume the sidebar should be shown only for the home page.


FreeMarker comments are of the form <#-- This won't be printed in the output -->

One way to structure the solution is the following:

<#-- aside.ftlh -->

<#macro sidebar>

  <h2>Recommended tracks</h2>
      <li><a href="#">Efilnikufesin</a></li>
      <li><a href="#">P.O.N.X.</a></li>
      <!--li><a href="#">Planet caravan</a></li-->


aside.ftlh has static markup for a sidebar. It is defined inside a macro called sidebar.

<#-- commons.ftlh -->

<#import "aside.ftlh" as sbar>

<#macro header>

      <li><a href="#">Home</a></li>
      <li><a href="#">About</a></li>
      <li><a href="#">Sign Up</a></li>


<#macro main useSidebar=false>

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <#if useSidebar>


commons.ftlh template imports aside.ftlh associating it with the shortname sbar. Additionally:

  • It defines two macros: header and main. The macro header generates a static navigation menu

  • main macro is the skeleton of a very simple HTML page

  • main has a parameter named useSidebar whose default is false

  • The sidebar macro is called using <@sbar.sidebar/> while header with <@header/> (local macro)

<#-- index.ftlh -->

<#import "commons.ftlh" as com>
<@com.main useSidebar=true>

  <h1>This is the index page!</h1>
  <p>Temporibus ut nisi quibusdam iusto vitae similique laudantium. Minima cumque ducimus sit ut dolores. Autem quam soluta illo et omnis expedita voluptas magnam. Sit aperiam laboriosam magnam et amet deleniti. Sit et velit unde quibusdam esse ullam voluptatem. Enim sint blanditiis dolores. Laborum velit eos dolor ad quaerat. Quo tempora excepturi enim dolor harum sunt ipsa. Quis sit dolorem harum ipsa fuga voluptatem commodi.


index.ftlh is the homepage:

  • Template commons.ftlh is imported and its macro main called passing true for useSidebar

  • The markup between <@com.main... and <!--@com.main--> is the content of the homepage, which is "inserted" by the main macro when the <#nested> directive is reached

<#-- about.ftlh -->

<#import "commons.ftlh" as com>

  <h1>About us</h1>
  <p>We don't know ourselves very well.</p>


about.ftlh is the "about us" page. It works like the homepage except the sidebar will not be shown.


Web pages need their assets, be they stylesheets, images, or javascript. The template engine has no restrictions in this regard. The main concern is producing proper markup. Keep in mind assets are not stored alongisde the templates but in the parallel folder /opt/jans/jetty/jans-auth/agama/fl. Check here to learn more.

Template overrides#

Template overrides is a mechanism that allows templates customization and promotes flows reuse. If an existing flow serves well the needs of a new flow you are writing, with this feature you can homogenize your UI for a more pleasant user experience.

To start, use Trigger to play around with the existing flow - as is - from the flow you are creating. Collect the URLs of the pages you are not comfortable with: grab them directly from the browser's address bar. Then proceed as follows with every URL to locate the actual templates physically:

  1. Remove the https://.../fl/ portion of the URL
  2. Split the URL obtained into two pieces: a folder name and a remainder. The remainder starts after the last slash found in the URL, and usually ends in .fls
  3. In your Janssen server, locate the directory /opt/jans/jetty/jans-auth/agama/ftl
  4. cd to the directory specified by the folder
  5. List the contents of the directory and pick the filename that best matches the remainder

Save a copy of every selected file in the directory associated to your flow (basePath directive) or in a subdirectory of it. Rename the files if desired too.

Now, build the Override templates directive passing several pairs of strings separated by lines or spaces. Every pair consists of a string specifying the original template location, that is, <folder>/<filename> followed by the path to the new template version relative to the base path of your flow. Check here for an example.

Last update: 2023-03-09
Created: 2022-06-24